May 22, 2018

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               22 May 2018

 

I am John Carberry, co-founder of Sustainable Aquatics, Sustainable Nutrition and SNCE Laboratories, LLC. I will be writing a series of chapters in a story about health, nutrition, disease, disease avoidance, evolutionary nutrition and the like. This is the first.

 

I am 64 years old and have been studying these topics as an adult since about 1981 when my first son was born. Becoming a parent can fill one with a sudden realization of destiny and obligation and responsibility. And I wondered, what is the best way to live and eat, I realized no one had taught me rational lessons in these regards, and I started to study. Sitting here nearly four decades later I realize that when I started these studies, the knowledge that has been developed, especially since the early 90s, was required to answer these questions and was not available.

 

Even back then we were being told that a good balance between incoming Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids, and an emphasis on DHA were important, but I could not discover so easily why this was true. So I started a long, four decade, development process populating my vocabulary and library with the building blocks. Some of the building blocks include terms and concepts which are critical to telling our story and have only been discovered in the past few decades. Here are the points to study today:

 

  • What are the main regulatory systems below the endocrinal systems? Especially the Eicosanoid system.
  • Why is a balance of Omega 3 and Omega 6 important?
  • Why is CBD good for us? How does it work for the Eicosanoid system?
  • An introduction to antioxidants and astaxanthin.

 

  • Eicosanoids: I learned that these active elements are very ancient regulatory agents in virtually all our biological systems. They have 20 carbons, hence the Greek route Eico, and there are pairs of them, opposing each other, half made from Omega 3 and half from Omega 6 fatty acids. So balance is good, need both, so now I understood why a good balance between the two fatty acids is a good thing.

 

Eicosanoids are made and used instantly at the place they are needed. We now understand they play a role in virtually all biological systems and processes.

 

  • Inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory actions:

 

  • MedlinePlus defines inflammation thus: The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens. Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria. Nonliving substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles (such as a splinter) can also be antigens. The immune system recognizes and destroys, or tries to destroy, substances that contain antigens.
  • Oxidative stress and inflammation: There is debate as to which one comes first, sometimes one, sometimes the other, but always when you find one you find the other.

 

  • Reactive Oxidative Species:

 

These are the bad actors: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical speciescontaining oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.

 

  • Anti-oxidants: these are the police who control the ROS. They are often complex molecules with limited bio availability and often don’t like water, called hydrophobia which make them difficult to get to the right places.

 

  • Astaxanthin: this molecule is what makes salmon so colorful. It is one of the most powerful, stable and long-lasting antioxidants known to man. And it has to be treated right to make it bio available. It is highly hydrophobic, does not like water, (blood) and love oil.

 

  • The endocannabinoid system(ECS)

Then there is the Endocannabinoid System (ECB) Wikipedia give us this helpful essay:

 

The ECS is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating a variety of physiological and cognitive processes including fertility, pregnancy, during pre- and postnatal development]appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and in mediating the pharmacological effects of cannabis. The ECS is also involved in mediating some of the physiological and cognitive effects of voluntary physical exercise in humans and other animals, such as contributing to exercise-induced euphoria as well as modulating locomotor activity and motivational salience for rewards. In humans, the plasma concentration of certain endocannabinoids (i.e., anandamide) have been found to rise during physical activity since endocannabinoids can effectively penetrate the blood–brain barrier, it has been suggested that anandamide, along with other euphoriant neurochemicals, contributes to the development of exercise-induced euphoria in humans, a state colloquially referred to as a runner's high.

 

  • Each of the cells in our body are contained in what is called the cell plasma membrane, or plasma membrane. In the cell there are things like endosomes and lysosomes that play an important regulatory role in the cell. The plasma membrane is 3-10 nm thick and is made of lipids. They can contain any number of lipophilic compounds important to our health, if we can get them there.

 

 

  • In her 2015 article in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Sumner Burstein titled Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Dr. Burstein teaches us in section 4.1: 4.1. Eicosanoids

 

4.1.1. Arachidonic acid release: The initiating event in all eicosanoid biosynthesis is the release of free arachidonic acid from phospholipid storage sites where it exists in an esterified form. Thus, drugs affecting this process, presumably involving PLA2, can have a profound effect on the physiological status of a variety of systems. Both CBD and THC produce a significant stimulation of arachidonic acid release in intact human platelets.22 Interestingly, CBD is roughly 1.5 times more potent than THC suggesting that this action may not be involved in the psychotropic activity of THC. It was also found that a product shift from cyclooxygenase to lipoxygenase products occurs as a result of cannabinoid exposure. This probably involves action(s) on downstream events in the arachidonic acid cascade. Stimulated arachidonic acid release was also observed in neuroblastoma cells (NBA2). The arachidonic acid release effect was extended to a series of six primary phyto cannabinoids to produce the following rank order of hydrolytic activity: CBD to CBCy to THC=CBCR= CBN to CBG.23 The model used to obtain these data was the WI38 human lung fibro blast that had been radio labelled by equilibration with free arachidonic acid. Again, CBD was more active than THC in stimulating phosphor lipid hydrolysis. By way of comparison, the anti inflammatory actions of cannabinoid analogs such as NAgly24 and ajulemic acid(Fig.2)25 have been attributed to their ability to promote the release of free arachidonic acid. In these examples, a result of this action was the elevation of pro resolving substances such as lipoxin A4 and 15d-PGJ2.26 A similar mechanism may explain some of the anti inflammatory actions of CBD.

 

Astaxanthin:

 

These processes are all very vulnerable to ROS and oxidative stress. Having a strong antioxidant in place will optimize these processes. Making astaxanthin bio available and resident in the plasma membranes is a great way to successfully manage the ROS.

 

My Conclusions:

 

  • The Eicosanoid system is a regulatory system involved in both anti inflammatory and inflammatory responses, both are required for good health, but in balance;

 

  • Because the Eicosanoids are made and used instantly, a health balance of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids in our diet and body is important;

 

  • The Endocannabinoid System (ECB System) plays an important role in optimizing the performance of the Eicosanoid system. It does this by stimulating the release of arachidonic acid, a precursor in all eicosanoid biosynthesis.

 

  • Protecting these processes from ROS and oxidative stress will optimize these processes.

 

  • CBD made in our body, which is why it is called an “Endo” system and is essential to our health, Supplementing CBD enhances the body’s function in these regards.

 

  • A healthy intake and residence of powerful antioxidants can be very important.